The scarring alopecia often referred to as cicatricial alopecia, is an inflammatory condition that causes hair loss. As a result of the irreversible death of hair follicles, it causes bald patches on the scalp. The basic cells surrounding and within the hair become damaged or destroyed, and fibrous tissue takes its place. The hair cannot grow back once the hair has been damaged. Most often, non-scarring alopecia develops into permanent or irreparable baldness before developing into scarring alopecia.
Any otherwise healthy person can get scarring alopecia. It is not infectious, and there might not always be a hereditary connection. Some types are more frequently observed in females than in males. Scarring alopecia known as pseudopelade primarily affects adult women. Scarring alopecia generally does not affect children, although some specialized types can affect young men.
Although the exact causes of Scarring baldness are not yet known, inflammation seems to be the main culprit. The majority of scarring alopecia is brought on by inflammation-induced irreversible hair follicle damage, and collagen deposition that is occurring over time, and they are commonly accompanied by sebaceous gland loss.
Cicatricial alopecia symptoms
The following are a few common symptoms of scarring alopecia:
- Burning of scalp
- Discharge of pus from the scalp
- Patches of scaly and rough skin
- Blisters formation
Classification of cicatricial alopecia
- Primary: The hair is irreparably damaged and substituted by fibrous tissue, which is what causes this. The major target of damage in prime scarring alopecia is the hair follicle, which is where the illness starts. Because the skin cells in the protrusion of the hair root are completely gone, the hair cannot regenerate. Inflammatory cells like lymphocytes, neutrophils, or a combination of these attack the hair follicle primarily. Primary scarring alopecia is further subclassified as lymphocytic, neutrophilic, or mixed alopecia depending on the type of cells that cause the inflammation.
Folliculitis decalvans and dissection cellulitis of the hair are examples of neutrophilic cicatricial alopecia. Both disorders are typically found in male adolescents or young adults.
Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris (lichen planus follicularis), acne keloidalisnuchae, frontal fibrosing alopecia, Brocq pseudopelade, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, are all lymphocytic alopecia.
- Secondary: This kind of alopecia also leaves behind permanent scars. But secondary damage to the hair follicles occurs as a consequence of inflammation or skin injury that subsequently affect the hair strands. When the follicles are destroyed as a result of burns, cancer, trauma, or radiation therapy, this type of baldness develops.
- Developmental/Hereditary: Hormone imbalance, genetics, or normal ageing process are some reasons for this alopecia
Cicatricial alopecia treatment:
The treatment of this type of baldness these days. Just like a normal hair transplant, a hair transplant is possible in this patch as well. But, before going for a complete transplant, a surgeon must perform a test surgery. Only 100-200 grafts must be implanted on the patch and then the results must be observed for at least 6-8 months. Then after, if the transplanted